As Long As This Land Shall Last

A History of Treaty 8 and Treaty 11, 1870-1939

Livre numérique

As Long As This Land Shall Last

A historically accurate study that takes no sides, this book is the first complete document of Treaties 8 and 11 between the Canadian government and the Native people at the turn of the nineteenth century. On the basis of those treaties, contested in the Mackenzie Pipeline debate, white fur-traders, trappers, and corporations gave themselves privileges of ownership with no regard to the Native claim and to the promise made to the Natives that they could live and hunt there "as long as the sun rises, as long as the river flows, as long as this land shall last."

Historian René Fumoleau has delved into church and government sources to afford a clear picture of the negotiations for the treaties beginning in 1870 and their aftermath up to 1939. With an Epilogue by Joan Barnaby, the documents discussed in the book speak for themselves, implying a host of questions with both historical relevance and enduring significance.

Table des matières

Table des matières
As Long As This Land Shall Last 1
Contents 12
List of Abbreviations 15
List of Maps 16
Foreword 18
Preface 20
Introduction 24
CHAPTER I: The Old Northwest Territories, 1870–1895 32
Government, 1870–1880 34
New Transportation Routes, 1868–1895, and a New Economy, 1885–1895 39
No Treaty – No Help, 1870–1889 43
The North is Floating on Oil, 1888–1891 55
CHAPTER II: Treaty 8, 1897–1900 64
Introduction 66
The Glitter of Gold Behind the Treaty, 1897–1899 67
North West Mounted Police Patrols, 1897–1899 72
Ottawa Prepares for the Treaty, 1897–1899 78
Treaty 8 – Summers of 1899 and 1900 96
Treaty 8 Negotiations 103
Summary 138
CHAPTER III: The Years Between the Treaties, 1900–1920 156
Introduction 158
Following Treaty 8 159
Preparing Treaty 11 190
Summary 210
CHAPTER IV: Treaty 11 220
Introduction 222
Oil is King 224
The Territorial Administration Emerges 229
Ottawa Prepares the Treaty, 1920–1921 231
"Conspiracy of Silence" 241
Treaty 11 242
Summary 302
Conclusion 313
CHAPTER V: The Years after Treaty 11, 1922–1927 330
Introduction 332
Treaty 11, 1922 333
Trapping and Hunting, 1922–1929 346
CHAPTER VI: A Decade of Desperation, 1928–1939 382
Introduction 384
The Flu Epidemic of 1928 386
Problems for Both Governments 391
Metis and Eskimos 396
Pressure on Ottawa 400
Hunting and Trapping: The Critical Years, 1928–1939 407
Boycott at Fort Resolution, 1937 425
Too Little, Too Late 429
Summary 435
CONCLUSION 442
APPENDICES 448
I: Dates relevant to Indian history and the treaties 450
II: Affidavits signed by witnesses to Treaties 8 and 11 472
III: Memorandum of Lawrence Vankoughnet, January 19, 1887 475
IV: Testimony of Louis Norwegian, July 11, 1973 477
V: Article in The Edmonton Journal, September 26, 1921 481
VI: Bourget's Report, 1923 482
VII: Eyewitness accounts of the 1928 flu epidemic 491
VIII: Extracts from Charles Parker's 1928 report 496
IX: Extracts from Charles Parker's 1930 report 506
X: Memorandum of Bishop Breynat, November,1936 511
XI: Canada's blackest blot, May 28, 1938 525
XII: Excerpts from Bourget's 1930 report 539
BIBLIOGRAPHY 544
EPILOGUE 554
INDEX 568
A 568
B 569
C 570
D 572
E 572
F 573
G 576
H 577
I 578
J 579
K 579
L 579
M 580
O 582
N 582
P 583
Q 583
R 583
S 584
T 585
U 587
V 587
W 588
Y 588
Z 589